Liquid brines are located on Mars, and recent studies have shown that they are more common and longer-lasting than scientists once thought. According to the Nature Astronomy journal, their properties, along with their temperatures also make them uninhabitable for the Earth’s microorganisms.
What Are Liquid Brines?
Brine is a very concentrated solution that consists of salt (NaCl) in water (H20). Brine can be referred to as a variety of salt solutions that range from the standard concentration of seawater – 3.5% up to close to 26% which is a standard saturated solution based on its temperature.
Salts that come in contact with water reduce the freezing point temperature along with the water vapor pressure.
Mars is a planet in our solar system that is the most Earth-like which is why it is constantly being explored. It has quite large reservoirs of H20, which is one of the essentials for human life.
Liquid Brines on Mars
Few regions or environments on Mars can host liquid water that meets specific temperature and water activity requirements. These allow for terrestrial organisms to replicate.
The atmosphere on Mars is too thin and cold, which doesn’t allow the stable liquid to persist on the surface. However, the presence of salt can create liquid substances, brines, and they can last in stable condition for quite some time.
Edgard Rivera-Valentin, who works at the Universities Space Research Association in Texas alongside Vincent Chevrier, from the University of Arkansas, combined a thermodynamic model that has a climate model able to investigate exactly where brine can form on planet Mars and for how long.
The results showed that the metastability expands the locations along with the duration of the brines on Mars, which is way beyond what any previous thought. It does this because of the surrounding equatorial regions.
Edgard and Vincent, along with other colleagues, found that up to 40% of the Martian surface can host stable brines, no matter the latitude. They also concluded that the brines could last up to 6 consecutive hours and 2% of the Martian year.
Meet Craig Hemsworth – the Father of Actors Chris, Liam, and Luke
Fans of the Hemsworth brothers have often noticed the presence of their father Craig during some Hollywood events and on social media. So, who is the man who raised Chris, Liam, and Luke?
The Hemsworth Brothers Were Born In Melbourne and Lived On a Northern Territory Farm
Craig and his wife Leonie first settled in Melbourne, where Luke was born in 1980, Chris in 1983, and Liam in 1990. Leonie worked as an English teacher, and Craig was a counselor in child protection services. Soon after Liam was born, Craig and Leonie relocated to the Northern Territory and started working on a cattle farm. There, the couple ran the community center, which also served as a grocery store and post office, before relocating again to Phillip Island.
Handling the Hemsworth Brothers Wasn’t Always Easy for Craig and Leonie
During an interview with Jimmy Kimmel back in 2016, Luke Hemsworth jokingly referred to their home as the Hemsworth house of horrors. Apparently, there is a good reason for that, because according to Liam in a different interview, the fighting got so bad at one point, he threw a knife at his brother Chris. Liam added that their fighting as young boys was one way of expressing love.
Fortunately for the Hemsworth brothers, their parents Leonie and Craig managed to pull through the challenge of raising three boys. They now regularly appear in all three brothers’ snaps. Leonie recently stunned fans with her youthful looks during her 60th birthday, and Craig was spotted going surfing with Chris, looking just as buff as his son.
Leonie and Craig regularly accompany their sons to red carpet events like the San Sebastian Film Festival or the premiere of Liam’s movie The Dressmaker. They are often seen on the brothers’ social media accounts as well. In 2016, Chris and Liam appeared with their dad at the MCG for the celebration of the first Western Bulldogs premiership since 1954, and back in 1918, when Liam was dating Miley Cyrus, both his parents visited his home in Los Angeles. Liam even shared a photo of himself with Leonie and Craig as they were hiking in Hollywood.